音で聴く狂言 Sounds in Kyogen>  
  I have made an archive of Kyogen sounds to provide an opportunity to those who would like to hear various vocal sounds and rhythms created in an imitation of birds and animals in Kyogen, from this e-mail-site.  
  Simple sounds used in Kyogen produce a strong impact on its audiences.  
  Kyogen was originally performed on an outdoor stage. Six hundred years ago, they did not have microphones nor any other kinds of sound effect devices. They had to use their voices and bodies.  
  Simple sounds used in Kyogen produce a strong impact on its audiences.  
  For centuries, predecessors kept devising methods and techniques of voice production so that their voices will reach out to the audiences sitting far from the stage at out-door performances. Their voices tended to be lost in the open air. Consequently they had abandoned a realistic way of acting, after they tried in every possible methods. They, then, devised unique manners of expression; by reducing unnecessary realistic details to the mere essence of movements to represent feelings and thoughts. By concentrating on such simple and stylized movements, they succeeded to create their own way of acting.  
  Since the, acting in Kyogen has been kept refined and stylized as seen in the present form. A collection of kata, stylized and symbolic movements, forms the basis of acting in Kyogen. Even just to open the door, we have a fixed pattern of stylized physical movements and also voices to go with them.  
  In Kyogen acting, we used a lot of sounds imitating those in Nature.  
  Some such mimicries, imitations of various sounds, differ from those commonly used today. Japanese language seems to have developed the use of such mimetic sounds in conversation a lot more than any foreign language. Nakami Yamaguchi、the author of Inuwa ヤbyoユ tonaita (A dog barked woof) explains that foreigners who learn Japanese will face difficulty of understanding mimetic sounds in Japanese language, as they can hardly grasp its implications and nuances since it is impossible to put acoustic sounds in a dictionary.  
  I sincerely wish that my site will offer an introduction to foreign people to the understanding and appreciation of Kyogen, one of representative traditional theatre art of Japan.  
  大蔵流 狂言方 善竹忠亮  
  Kyogen actor, Okura School Tadaaki Zenchiku  
  Okura-Ryu Kyogen actor ZENCHIKU, Tadaaki offical web site
・HP TOP → http://www.zenchiku.com/
・E-mail → info@zenchiku.com
  Birdユs cries
A crowユs cries are transcribed as ヤqua-qua-ヤ in Japan today, but in an ancient time it was ヤquoca−ユ. Long ago, Japanese people stopped using the latter as it was no longer convincing.
This is a well known Kyogen play, in which birdsユ cries are used to amuse a character on the stage as well as audiences. In the play, a yamabushi looks for a tea house, as he is feeling thirsty on his way down to a town from mountains. He finds a tall persimmon orchard. He immediately climbs one of them and starts eating persimmons. But a farmer comes to the site, while patrolling his fields of persimmon trees to protect the fruits from thieves. He finds the yambushi on a tree, and by threats he forces him to do mimicries of a crow and other animals for his amusement.
A similar scene is found in another play, called Bonsan.
  Barking sounds of a dog
Some of us are taught, when we stared learning English at a Junior High School, that dogs bark ヤwoof, woof.ユ The dog barks are the same in the world, and yet, they have been given different mimicries and transcriptions.
xx(A dog may need an interpreter, when it crosses the oceans to another continent.)xx
In ancient Japanese, the barking of a dog was transcribed as ヤbyoubyouユ, instead of ヤwanwanユ as in Japan today.
In a Kyoen play , Bonsan, a bonsai collector could not resist the temptation and goes into another collectorユs garden to steal his ones. But he is found, and is chased to the corner of the garden. He gets threatened, and is forced to make cries of animals. The owner and the audience know that the thiefユs identity is revealed. But the thief thinks otherwise, and he keeps up his desperate efforts in makingcries, imitating animals.
Futaridaimyou has a similar scene where one of the characters is forced to make mimetic animalsユ cries.
  Cries of a monkey
A Kyogen actor is said to ヤStarts (his acting) with cries of a monkey and ends (it) with them. Cries of a monkey will be, perhaps, the first animal sounds we learn in Kyogen acting. Cries of a young monkey in Utsubo-zaru have gentle and soft sounds with a unique intonation. In Kaki-Yamabushi, yamabushi is dressed half like a samurai and the other half like a monk and walks in the wild mountains, seeking mythical power. He comes down from mountains to a town. He climbs on a persimmon tree and eats its fruits to quelch his thirst. But he is found on a tree by the owner of the persimmon orchard, and is threatened with a gun. he immediately startsmaking mimetic sounds of a monkey. But his monkey cries are desperate ones, so they are fast and incessant, unlike gentle and slow ones in Utsubozzaru. The similar scene is seen in another play called Bonsan.
  Birdユs cry (kite)
Cries of a kite are also used in Kaki-Yamabushi, which is often performed at schools.
A Yamabushi is forced to make this mimetic sounds, after he is found on a persimmon tree, stealing persimmons. Even school children in a Suburban area do not know a kiteユs cries, even though sometimes its cries could be heard over their heads; peeehyororoooooooooooooo...............................
大きな焼き物の茶碗です。私をして狂言を好きにさせた音です。「附子」の稽古があるとこの場面を待ちわびてました。この人(達)はどんな「ぐぁらりん ちーん」をしてくれるのだろうとワクワクしていました。同じ擬音でも人によって違う音になるのも狂言の面白いところです。
What is Daitenmoku?
Take ヤdaiユ off and add ヤchawanユ at the end and then it will be a tenmoku-chawan.
It is a big bowl of porcelain, originally from China and meant to be a treasure. In the Kogen play, Busu, two naughty servants, Tarokaja and Jirokaja, make calls ヤGualalinユ and ヤchi~nユ, when they break this porcelain bowl treasured by their master. The sounds they made fascinated me, and drew myself into the world of Kyogen. When I happen to be listening my fellow Kyogen actors acting in this scene, I always have a strong urge to hear what kind of sounds they will make. All Kyogen actors make different sounds, and that is the part of fascination in Kyogen.
In this archive, I make both sounds by myself, but on the actual stage, two actors performanig the roles of Tarokaja and Jirokaja make these sounds ヤGualalinユ and ヤchi~nユ respectively. I prefer making the latter sound. But all of my perfromance depends on how Tarokaja, the leading role, will say ヤGualalinユ, as the sound of ヤchi~nユ is to be made in response to the first sound. So the responsibility of Tarokaja, though not showing on stage, is definitely bigger than Jirokaja.